A windshield wiper is a device used to remove rain, snow, ice, and debris from a windscreen or windshield. Almost all motor vehicles, including cars, trucks, train locomotives, watercraft with a cabin and some aircraft, are equipped with such wipers, which are usually a legal requirement.
A wiper generally consists of a metal arm, pivoting at one end and with a long rubber blade attached to the other. The arm is powered by a motor, often an electric motor, although pneumatic power is also used in some vehicles. The blade is swung back and forth over the glass, pushing water or other precipitation from its surface. The speed is normally adjustable, with several continuous speeds and often one or more "intermittent" settings. Most automobiles use two synchronized radial type arms, while many commercial vehicles use one or more pantograph arms.
On some vehicles, a windshield washer system is also used. This system sprays water or an antifreeze window washer fluid at the windshield using several nozzles. The windshield washer system helps to remove dirt or dust from the windshield when it is used in concert with the wiper blades. When antifreeze windshield washer fluid is used, it can help the wipers to remove snow or ice. For winter conditions, some vehicles have additional heaters aimed at the windows or embedded heating wire in the glass. These defroster systems help to keep snow and ice from building up on the windshield. In rare cases, miniature wipers are installed on headlights.
In the Gran Turismo series, starting with Gran Turismo 5, the windshield wiper mechanic, as explained above, works only with Premium Cars and cars with a fully-detailed interior in Gran Turismo 6 (this does not work for open wheel cars like the Audi R8 Race Car '01, Audi R10 TDI Race Car '06, or the Formula Gran Turismo). The wipers return in Gran Turismo Sport though in a much more limited state, as its functionality is used in a Mission Challenge; initially, none of the tracks have rainy weather apart from the Northern Isle Speedway - Infield track used for later Mission Challenges. Wet weather was later added to Red Bull Ring and Tokyo Expressway courses (except South tracks), and is standard on Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps, allowing for the wipers to be fully utilized.